Sunday, November 29, 2009

Android Hello World Activity Sample

Here we are looking how to create a sample hello android program using eclipse IDE
1.Setup your Environment
2. Create an application

1. Setup Android Environment
a. Download latest Eclipse from
b. update android Plug-in - Refer :

c. Install Android SDK
Install new android SDK from the android site. Refer:

D. Configure SDK with your Eclipse
Go to Window>Preference>Select Android > Browse "SDK PATH" > Apply

E. Create a Device / Emulator
Create emulator using the AVD manager
Open AVD Manager > New > Give Name/Target > Create AVD.

Android Environment has setted. Now we can create an android Application.

2. Create a " Hello World Apps "
a. Open Eclipse > File > Android Project.

b. Check the Android Folder Structure.
Go to Window > Show View > package Explorer

AndroidManifest.xml - It contains the overall application configuration.
src - Contains the java code like activites,service,broadcast receiver , etc,.
res - Contains the application resource
          1. drawable - Icon,Image
          2. raw - Sounds
          3. menu - menu properties
          4. values - application properites like title,color value, dropdown values.
          5. layout - screen design
gen - Contains the File which is used to map the resource and java src.

c. Run the application
Run > Run Android Application


 D. Check the Emulator

Hope this is useful for create a hello world program.

Saturday, November 21, 2009

Application Fundamentals

Android applications are written in the Java programming language.
Android application archieve format is .apx
Each process has its own Java virtual machine (VM), so application code runs in isolation from the code of all other application
Android Application Components are Activites,Service,Broadcast receivers and Content providers

An application that has a visible UI is implemented with an activity. When a user selects an application from the home screen or application launcher, an activity is started.

A service should be used for any application that needs to persist for a long time, such as a network monitor or update-checking application.

Content providers
You can think of content providers as a database server. A content provider's job is to manage access to persisted data, such as a SQLite database. If your application is very simple, you might not necessarily create a content provider. If you're building a larger application, or one that makes data available to multiple activities or applications, a content provider is the means of accessing your data.

Broadcast receivers
An Android application may be launched to process a element of data or respond to an event, such as the receipt of a text message.

AndroidManifest.xml - Configuration
An Android application, along with a file called AndroidManifest.xml, is deployed to a device.
AndroidManifest.xml contains the necessary configuration information to properly install it to the device. It includes the required class names and types of events the application is able to process, and the required permissions the application needs to run.

Project Folder Structure ;
1. src - It contain the java code
2. Resource - It contain the all resource with different floder
    drawable - Icon
    raw - Sounds
    menu - Menu
    values - Project Properties
    layout - User interface Screens
3. gen - It contains the file. You could not edit manually. This have been generated automatically by understanding resource files etc.
4. AndroidManifest -It contains the Project properties
5. Android lib.

The next topic discusses the "Hello Android" Program and layout.

Friday, November 20, 2009

Architecture of Android

Architecture of Android :
1. Linux Kernal [ 2.6 Kernal - security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model]
2. Native Libraries [SQLite, WEBKit, OpenGL,..]
3. Runtime + Dalvik VM [.dex format, Lightweight VM, Efficient Dalvik Bytecode]
4. Application Framework [Activity Manager, Content Manager, Location Manager, ]
5. Application [ System Apps and Your Apps]

Linux Kernal
Android is based on the linux keral 2.6. From the Kernal 2.6 android using the hardward interaction layer
Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the software stack.

Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used by various components of the Android system. These capabilities are exposed to developers through the Android application framework.

Android Runtime
Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language.

Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included "dx" tool.

The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory management.

Application Framework

Developers have full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications. The application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components; any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities (subject to security constraints enforced by the framework). This same mechanism allows components to be replaced by the user.

Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems, including:

* A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application, including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even an embeddable web browser
* Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications (such as Contacts), or to share their own data
* A Resource Manager, providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings, graphics, and layout files
* A Notification Manager that enables all applications to display custom alerts in the status bar
* An Activity Manager that manages the lifecycle of applications and provides a common navigation backstack


Android will ship with a set of core applications including an email client, SMS program, calendar, maps, browser, contacts, and others. All applications are written using the Java programming language.

The next topic discusses the basic components and folder structure of android application.

Monday, November 9, 2009

About Android

First of all, Android operating system is running on the Linux kernel 2.6.27, meaning stronger security, improved stability and a range of core applications enhancements. Android provides packs SIM Application Toolkit 1.0 and features are auto-checking and repair of SD cardfile-system. Just like the iPhone OS 3.0, Android comes with the SDK that adds new APIs which help developers create better apps.

Some of the features are simply catchup of the iPhone’s, like a new virtual keyboard or improved mobile web browser. Others are designed to add more punch through flashier eye candy, like animated window transitions, smooth, accelerometer-based application rotations between portrait and landscape modes and overall polish of user interface elements.

Android Features:
* Application framework enabling reuse and replacement of components
* Dalvik virtual machine optimized for mobile devices. -
* Integrated browser based on the open source WebKit engine
* Optimized graphics powered by a custom 2D graphics library; 3D graphics based on the OpenGL ES 1.0 specification (hardware acceleration optional)
* SQLite for structured data storage
* Media support for common audio, video, and still image formats (MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF)
* GSM Telephony (hardware dependent)
* Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi (hardware dependent)
* Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer (hardware dependent)
* Rich development environment including a device emulator, tools for debugging, memory and performance profiling, and a plugin for the Eclipse IDE
* Support Other platform. Andriod NDK for c,c++ Developer and ASM for phython developers

Reference: [1]

Top 10 features you’ll love about Android 1.5
  • Smart virtual keyboard
  • Home screen customizable with widgets
  • Live Folders for quick-viewing your data
  • Video recording and sharing
  • Picasa image uploading
  • Faster, standards-compliant browser
  • Voice Search
  • Stereo Bluetooth and hands-free calls
  • Snappier overall performance
  • Nice-to-haves
What are Other Mobile OS?
  • Symbian OS from Symbian Ltd,
  •  RIM BlackBerry operating system
  • iPhone OS from Apple Inc.
  • Windows Mobile from Microsoft
  • Linux operating system Palm webOS from Palm Inc.

The second Android Developer Challenge has begun! In this contest, real-world users will help review and score applications and the overall winner will take away $250,000 (read more...)

How to Program Google Android in eclipse
You can bulid your android application using the powerful Eclipse environment. This part introduces Android application development with the Eclipse plug-in, otherwise known as Android Development Tools. This provides an introduction to Android development with a quick introduction to the platform, a tour of Android Development Tools, and includes the construction of "Hello World " example applications.

This section provides to setup the right environment to develop the android application.

System Requirements
Eclipse Platform
Get the latest version of Eclipse 3.5 (Galileo) from (V3.5 was used in this tutorial).

Android Developer Tools
Get the latest version of Android SDK from (V2.0 was used in this tutorial).

Set The Android Environment

Steps to Install Eclipse and Add plugin
1. Get the Eclipse 3.5 archieve File from
2. Extract the archieve File and run the Eclipse
3. Click Help->Install New software->Add
4. Type : Name :Android plug-in
5. Install the Plug-in
6. Restart the Eclipse

Steps to Install Android SDK
2 : Run the Setup. - Goto the Commant pr
3 : You can see the popup (Android SDK and AVD Manager)
4 : If you encounter the following issue follow the solution, still if you have issue post your comments
Issue :Failed to fetch URL oid/repository/repository.xml

Solution :
Step 1 : Run the Tool
Step 2 : Change settings options and checked in [ misc section "force https:// ... sources to be fetched using http://..." ]
Step 3 : Restart application
Step 4 : Ensure the Option Selected.
5. Ensure your SDK is successfully updated.
Now the android environment is ready to create your application.

Develop Android Applications With Eclipse

You can develop your first android application using the below steps.

  • Create Emulator using the android toolkit
  • Configure Android SDK with your Eclipse
  • Create a demo Application

Create Device Using The Android Toolkit
1. Go to the SDK/tools/
2. Open a SDK Tool and run android.bat File
3. You can see the Android SDK and AVD Manager and Click "New"
4. Enter Device Name & Target Version and Click Create.

Configure Android SDK with your Eclipse
1. Open Eclipse
2. Go to preference : Window -> preference -> select Android
3. Browse and select the SDK Path (You can see the SDK version)
4. Apply and Close the preference popup

Create a demo Application
1. Open Eclipse and Create a new Android Project : File ->New -> Project -> Android Project
2. Enter the following data
1. project Name : Demo
2. Select Build Target : Android 1.1
3. Application Name : Demo
4. Package Name : com.demo
5. Create Activity : Demo
6. Min SDK Version : 2
3. Finally Click Finish
4. Check you application in project explorer
5. Run the your application : Run-> Run

About SDK Tool

You can find the following tools from your android sdk location
1. emulator – the emulator executable, that runs the APK files
2. adb – android debugger bridge, which is used to communicate with instances of the emulator
3. ddms – this is the debugger for the emulator executable

emulator – run your APK files
Run this program to launch the emulator that you can run your APK files in.
When you use plugins in your IDE to launch APK files, the emulator is started and the APK files are loaded it by the IDE.
otherwise you can using the below commands to install your application.

adb – install and uninstall APK files
The adb program is used to install APK files into the emulator that’s running.
Command : adb install
For example: “adb install SomeAndroidApp.apk”

To uninstall an APK file you have use adb to remove the file from the emulator itself.
For example: "adb shell rm data/app/SomeAndroidApp.apk"

*NOTE: To install or uninstall an APK file, please make sure that the emulator is already running.

ddms – debug and monitor your Android apps, and the emulator
This is the Android SDK emulator debugger. This is what you can do with your ebugger:

1. You can use this to look at LogCat output from your Android programs (Log.i(), Log.e(), etc) calls that are made in your Android program.
2. You can set the telephony status of your emulator. You can control the network data i/o speed and latency. You can even fake an incoming phone call into the emulator. You can even create an incoming SMS message.
3. You can take screenshots of the display of the emulator at any given time.
4. You can view the contents of the emulator’s filesystem. This is useful if you want to see where files are stored (that you download in your apps for example).

Here’s more information from Google Android docs on ddms.
The Eclipse plugin gives you full access to ddms functionality inside the IDE itself.

Emulator performance
To get an idea of what CPU speed your emulator is emulating try this:
1. start a shell session (adb shell),
2. then run "cat /proc/cpuinfo" to get the BogoMIPS.